Campral (Acamprol)

Acamprosate Calcium Generic Alternative at Low Cost


Active substance: Acamprosate
U.S. Brand: Campral
Indian Brand: Acamprol
Mfd by:
Strength: 333mg
Form release: 6 tablets blister
Shipping time: 7 – 21 days
Best price: 0.35 USD
Order: through request form


DescriptionHow to take?Common Side EffectsLatest New'sPhoto's

Acamprosate 333 mg Gastro-resistant Tablets, manufactured by SunPharma, sold under brand name Acamprol, each gastro-resistant tablet contains acamprosate calcium 333.0 mg as the active ingredient. Acamprosate is indicated as therapy to maintain abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. It should be combined with counselling.

Acamprosate is thought to stabilize the chemical balance in the brain that would otherwise be disrupted by alcoholism, possibly by blocking glutaminergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, while gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors are activated. Reports indicate that acamprosate only works with a combination of attending support groups and abstinence from alcohol.

Acamprosate calcium is a synthetic compound with a chemical structure similar to that of the endogenous amino acid homotaurine, which is a structural analogue of the amino acid neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid and the amino acid neuromodulator taurine. Its chemical name is calcium acetylaminopropane sulfonate. Its chemical formula is C H N O S Ca and molecular weight is 400.48. Its structural formula is:

Adults within the age range 18-65 years

– 2 tablets three times daily with meals (2 tablets in the morning, noon and night) in subjects weighing 60kg or more.

– In subjects weighing less than 60kg, 4 tablets divided into three daily doses with meals (2 tablets in the morning, 1 at noon and 1 at night).

The recommended treatment period is one year. Treatment with acamprosate should be initiated as soon as possible after the withdrawal period and should be maintained if the patient relapses.

Acamprosate does not prevent the harmful effects of continuous alcohol abuse. Continued alcohol abuse negates the therapeutic benefit; therefore acamprosate treatment should only be initiated after weaning therapy, once the patient is abstinent from alcohol.

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).

Certain serious side effects include allergic reactions, irregular heartbeats, and low or high blood pressure, while less serious side effects include headaches, insomnia, and impotence. Acamprosate should not be taken by people with kidney problems or allergies to the drug.

Global Acamprosate Calcium Market 2019 – Merck Group, Zydus Pharmaceuticals, Mylan, TevaMerck Group

 

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Calcium in alcoholism drug may be what prevents relapse

A research team finds calcium ions on acamprosate might be doing the work

Many drugs on the market work in mysterious ways.  Scientists still don’t know how aspirin works. They still don’t know how Prozac works, or any of the antipsychotics. But how a drug works is not necessarily important. When you need to prevent suffering and death, what is important is that the drug works, and works safely. How it works can wait.

But sometimes when a drug mechanism reveals itself, it’s a surprise. That was the case in a recent study of acamprosate, one of four drugs approved in the United States as a pharmacological treatment for alcoholism. It turns out that acamprosate itself might not be the active ingredient. Instead, the calcium ions attached to the drug could be driving its anti-relapse effects.

Rainer Spanagel and his colleagues at the Central Institute of Mental Health and the University of Heidelberg in Mannheim, Germany, were one of the first groups to study acamprosate. Their previous studies showed that long-term abstinence from alcohol could produce increases in glutamate levels in the brain. Glutamate is an amino acid and one of the chemical messengers in the brain. The increase in glutamate creates an excited brain state, and could make alcoholics more likely to relapse and drink again.

Studies with acamprosate, or specifically with the calcium salt of acamprosate, a form of the drug that’s coupled with calcium ions, show that it can reduce relapse after withdrawal in mouse models of alcoholism. It also helps calm down the increases in glutamate in human alcoholics.

Spanagel and his group wanted to understand why acamprosate was able to reduce relapse, and if possible, how they could make the drug more effective. Calcium acamprosate is the approved treatment, but relatively little of it gets into the brain. Spanagel commissioned another form of the drug, sodium acamprosate. In this form, more of the drug reached the brain. But, strangely, it didn’t work. It didn’t reduce alcohol consumption in rats after withdrawal.

Mystified, the scientists dug deeper. They showed that calcium acamprosate doesn’t act on receptors for glutamate, called NMDA receptors, which suggests that acamprosate doesn’t affect the glutamate system. Spanagel and his colleagues began to question whether acamprosate was biologically active at all.

So they went back to the original patent for acamprosate, where they found a clue. The patent states that “the calcium salt may be used as neurotropic agent; the magnesium salt as vasculotropic agent; the potassium salt as antiasthenic agent; the lithium salt may be used in for bipolar patients and the sodium salt in local treatments; the zinc salt may be used in dermatology.” Different salts of the same molecule, with very different functions. Right there in the wording of the patent was the suggestion that the ions — calium, lithium, potassium — could be the active agents.

In further tests, Spanagel and his group showed that calcium acamprosate, and not sodium acamprosate, reduced alcohol intake in booze-deprived rats. Even basic calcium chloride was able to reduce alcohol intake. In addition, the researchers found an association between levels of blood calcium and abstinence in people on acamprosate.

“It’s not every day you find an FDA approved medication where the salt is driving the effect,” says Jeff Weiner, an alcohol addiction researcher at Wake Forest School of Medicine. He notes that there needs to be confirmation of the results before acamprosate is declared inactive. There could be functions of acamprosate, or of calcium acamprosate specifically, that are currently undiscovered. “We’re going to need more data,” he says, “before we throw the drug out with the bathwater.”

Spanagel agrees that the results need to be replicated. “We are not claiming that any of the published results are wrong, the interpretation is wrong,” he says. And there are still many unanswered questions. Calcium levels in blood may not correspond to calcium levels in brain. High levels of calcium dosing can have adverse cardiac side effects. The blood levels of calcium in people being treated with calcium acamprosate normalized after the first month, even though abstinence continued. And the rats in the study showed reduced movement in response to calcium treatment. They might be reducing their alcohol intake because they are simply moving less.

And if calcium is the active agent, there’s still an important unanswered question: Scientists still don’t know how that calcium might be working stop alcoholics from going back to the bottle.

Markus Heilig, a psychiatrist with the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug Abuse, wrote a commentary on the paper calling for a randomized clinical trial to look at acamprosate, its calcium salt, and calcium alone. “If we could figure out the actual mechanism and find something more specific and more potent, there’s probably something there,” he says. “Whether it’s the calcium or the acamprosate, it’s doing something for some people.”

But Heilig also emphasizes that the paper, while it raises more questions than it answers, “represents some of the best science.” Whether acamprosate will turn out to have effects on its own or whether it all turns out to be calcium, the study helps to further our understanding of how we might prevent relapse. “This is ultimately a story of how science is all about questioning everything,” Helig says, “including the things we think we know.”

Multi-drug approach could be way to treat Alzheimer’s, study suggests

 

A French pharmaceutical company on Jan. 8 said promising results in preliminary research using a combination of existing medications to treat Alzheimer’s could point the way toward someday combating the dementia-causing disease with a drug cocktail.

Pharnext, in interviews with company officials and a study that appears in Nature’s peer-reviewed online journal Scientific Reports, said preclinical studies suggest that combining two approved drugs can have a synergistic impact in alleviating cognitive impairment and protecting the brain’s neurons and blood vessels from Alzheimer’s-related damage.

The drugs, which are not now used to treat Alzheimer’s, include acamprosate calcium, which has been prescribed since 1989 to reduce cravings and alleviate withdrawal symptoms in alcoholics. It was combined with baclofen, a medication that has been used for decades to treat the spastic movements in people suffering from multiple sclerosis.

The findings, which were obtained in laboratory cultures and animal testing, suggest the way forward to treating Alzheimer’s disease could be the same method discovered years ago to treat HIV, a senior company official said.

“Maybe the illusion we had was that we could treat a disease such as Alzheimer’s with a single silver bullet,” Daniel Cohen, an author of the study and a founder of Pharnext, said Wednesday in a telephone interview. “When you fight a complex disease, you have to use a complex treatment.”

Using already known drugs and at lower doses than usual means the cocktail should be safe and could perhaps lead to an approved therapy in a shorter time than it takes to develop new drugs, Cohen said.

Richard Lipton, who heads the Einstein Aging Study at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the division of cognitive aging and dementia at Montefiore Medical Center, said after reviewing the company’s study that its data and therapeutic approach sounded promising.